Londonderry: A Wonderful Place to Work

The typical family size in Londonderry, PA is 3.04 household members, with 82.2% being the owner of their particular dwellings. The mean home cost is $129557. For individuals paying rent, they pay out on average $677 per month. 47.3% of households have dual incomes, and the average domestic income of $49348. Median income is $25160. 10.2% of town residents live at or below the poverty line, and 18.1% are handicapped. 10.3% of citizens are former members associated with the military.

Londonderry, PA-Great Kivas

Lets visit Chaco Culture in New Mexico, USA from Londonderry, Pennsylvania. Based from the use of similar buildings by current Puebloan peoples, these rooms had been areas that are probably common for rites and gatherings, with a fireplace in the middle and room access supplied by a ladder extending through a smoke hole in the ceiling. Large kivas, or "great kivas," were able to accommodate hundreds of people and stood alone when not integrated into a housing that is large, frequently constituting a center location for surrounding villages made of (relatively) little buildings. To sustain large buildings that are multi-story held rooms with floor spaces and ceiling heights far greater than those of pre-existing houses, Chacoans erected gigantic walls employing a "core-and-veneer" method variant. An core that is inner of sandstone with mud mortar created the core to which slimmer facing stones were joined to produce a veneer. These walls were approximately one meter thick at the base, tapering as they ascended to conserve weight--an indication that builders planned the upper stories during the original building in other instances. While these mosaic-style veneers remain evident today, adding to these structures' remarkable beauty, Chacoans plastered plaster to many interior and exterior walls after construction was total to preserve the mud mortar from water harm. Starting with Chetro Ketl's building, Chaco Canyon, projects for this magnitude needed a huge number of three vital materials: sandstone, water, and lumber. Employing stone tools, Chacoans mined then molded and faced sandstone from canyon walls, choosing hard and dark-colored tabular stone at the most effective of cliffs during initial building, going as styles altered during later construction to softer and bigger tan-colored stone lower down cliffs. Liquid, essential to build mud mortar and plaster combined with sand, silt and clay, was marginal and accessible only during short and summer that is typically heavy.   There were natural sandstone reservoirs as well as rainwater from the arroyo, which was a flowing stream that carved the canyon and created the Chaco Wash. It then became a mess with a true number of ditches. The timber sources that were required for building the roofs were once abundant, but they disappeared during Chacoan fluorescence due to drought and deforestation. Chacoans walked 80 km to reach the southern and western coniferous forests. They cut down and then peeled and dried them for several hours before returning to the canyon to transport them. It is a huge undertaking, as each tree had to be hauled by dozens of men and women over many days. This was at addition into the nearly 200,000 trees that were destroyed during construction and repair of twelve big homes and large kivas. Chaco Canyon's designed landscape. The Chaco Canyon had a high level of architectural density, something that was not seen in this area before. However, it was only one part of the bigger linked region which formed the civilisation in Chaco. Nearly 200 other settlements, with huge homes and kivas of the same style as the ones in the canyon, existed outside the canyon. However they were smaller scaled. These sites are the most common in the San Juan Basin. However, the area they covered was larger than that of the English region. Chacoans created a network of roads to link these grouped communities to one another. They dug and levelled the ground below and added storage or steel bays. They were visible in many homes that are large the canyon, and they radiate amazingly straight. Chacoans built ramps or stairs into the wall space of cliffs to maintain the straightness of the roadways, even when the terrains that are steep in the American Southwest, such as mesas, buttes, and other landforms, e.g., the American Southwest's mesas, intersected with their route. This approach was extremely difficult and many roads were not large enough is used for foot transport. Many roads were also much wider than necessary. Some very nice houses had been placed within sight of each other and shrines that are nearby. This allowed for faster communication and the ability to signal distant areas via sunlight reflection or fire. Fajada Butte occupies a dominant position in Chaco Canyon. Aligning roadways and structures with the cardinal directions as well as the positions of sun and moon in critical seasons like solstices and equinoxes has been a practice that is common. This added structure to the Chacoan landscape. As an example, the front wall of Pueblo Bonito's great house is aligned north-south and east-west, while the location lies west of Chetro Ketl. Casa Rinconada is a kiva that is grand of meters in diameter, found within the canyon. It has two T-shaped internal doors that are arranged on a line that is north-south two doors outside aligned eastward. The sun that is rising just pass through Casa Rinconada during the morning for the equinox. (Restoration work carried out within the canyon does not indicate if this alignment was current).